Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Northern Atlantic and the Arctic: Arctic Alaska, Canada, Atlantic Coast to Maine, Northern Europe and Scandinavia. Polar to Temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 405.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.28 cm; tarsus: 3.85 cm; wing: 13.72 cm.
Total Length: 30 to 36 cm; Wingspan: 58 cm (Ref. 8812). Pursuit diving; pack ice edge; shallow open water; polynyas; <30 km. Arctic Alaska and Canada, Atlantic Coast to Maine, Northern Europe, Scandinavia (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ewins, P.J. 1992. (Ref. 91620)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.2 - 12.3, mean 5.4 (based on 1521 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100)