Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 36.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 1.80 g (Ref. 275)
Demersal; brackish; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 51°N - 48°S, 22°E - 155°W (Ref. 106950)
Indo-Pacific: from Japan to Australia and New Zealand coasts, from Hawaii to the East African coast, north to Red Sea and south to Madagascar. Introduced in the Mediterranean Sea.
Also caught by set nets and spears and jigs. Demersal neritic species (Ref. 105081). Inhabits warm coastal waters (Ref. 101164). Found among rock reefs, seaweeds and estuaries (Ref. 105081). Primarily active at night and is found in shallow waters, from 0 to 100 m in depth. Moves to deeper waters or in proximity to floating driftwood, reefs, rocks, or seagrasses during daylight. Often solitary (Ref. 101164). Voracious (Ref. 101165) and strictly carnivorous (Ref. 101164). Mainly consumes mollusks, fishes (Ref. 101164) and prawns (Ref. 101165). Utilizes its characteristic tentacles to catch live prey (Ref. 101164). Exhibits cannibalism on smaller conspecifics (Ref. 101164) or among size classes (Ref. 101165). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (19 of 100)