Pagophilus groenlandicus   (Erxleben, 1777)

harp seal
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Classification
Mammalia | Carnivora | Phocidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); 180 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 135.0 kg (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 135.0 kg

Environment
Bathydemersal; depth range 0 - 6000 m (Ref. 356)

Climate / Range
Boreal; 90°N - 0°S, 97°W - 180°E

Distribution
Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic: North Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Baffin Island, Magdalen Island, Russia, Canada (Ref. 1394). Pagophilus groenlandicus groenlandicus: Newfoundland, Jan Mayen (Norway), Baffin Bay, Greenland Sea, Nova Scotia, Greenland, Iceland; and vagrants in Virginia, Scotland, Germany, France; Pagophilus groenlandicus oceanicus: Barents Sea, Russia, White Sea (Ref. 1522).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Live chiefly in pack ice, but can be found away from it in summer. Feeds on a variety of crustaceans and open-water fishes during migration, and switch to several varieties of bottom dwelling fishes in summer on the northern grounds (Ref. 1394). Live chiefly in pack ice, but can be found away from it in summer. Feeds on a variety of crustaceans and open-water fishes during migration, and switch to several varieties of bottom dwelling fishes in summer on the northern grounds (Ref. 1394).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans




Human uses
Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us |

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: species profile; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown