Gastropoda | Gymnosomata
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 4.0 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435)
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 600 m (Ref. 2376)
Climate / Range
Cosmopolitan. Temperate to polar.
It feeds on Spiratella by everting its six, adhesive buccal cones; the prey is extracted completely from its shell by insertion of chitinous hooks into the prey's body (Ref. 92383). Also feeds on the thecosome Limacina (Ref. 2376). It uses its wing-like parapodia to swim (Ref. 92384). Two distinct larval forms: shelled veliger hatches from the egg and later undergoes metamorphosis by losing its shell and develops into a polytrochous larva. The latter undergoes body elongation, growth of wings and disappearance of ciliary bands to adult stage (Ref. 92383).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models