Mammalia | Carnivora
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); 140 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 170.0 kg (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 170.0 kg
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 45°N - 13°N, 140°W - 180°E
Eastern Central Pacific: USA and Mexico.
Dusky black with lighter ventrum. Gray head and shoulders, black nose with brown-red hair around the eyes. Guard hairs are white-tipped in adult males. Claws present in 5 fingers and absent on the 1st and 5th toes. Cartilaginous webbing extends past the claws. Females have 2 pairs abdominal nipples.
Found at sea, on beaches; when ashore, they prefer volcanic caves and grottos, or other rocky habitats. Found at sea, on beaches; when ashore, they prefer volcanic caves and grottos, or other rocky habitats. Both male and female territorial. Extralimital sightings in California corresponds with El Niño events (Ref. 1394). Breeds near or in caves marked by the male as his territory. Mating occurs postpartum. Pups nurse for 9 to 11 months during which nursing females fast for an average of 5 days (Ref. 80449).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)