Cnemidocarpa verrucosa   (Lesson, 1830)

sea toad
CoL | ITIS | WoRMS
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Macquarie Island, Macca country information

Common names:
Occurence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: never/rarely | Ref:
Regulations: no regulations | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: C: Ref. 87399.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurences: Occurence Point map
Main Ref: Primo, C and E. Vásquez, 2009
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Antarctic ascidian, ... more

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 20.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 2588)

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range

Sessile; depth range 0 - 1549 m (Ref. 3435)

Climate / Range

Polar

Distribution

Southwest Atlantic, Southern Pacific and the Antarctic: From Antarctica to sub-Antarctic islands and South America.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

This species is the largest and most abundant Styelidae in the Antarctic Ocean (Ref. 2588). Maximum depth from Ref. 116836. Found on muddy bottoms at depths of 15 to 30 m, on hard bottoms at a depth of 30 m, and on moraine deposits at depths of 25 to 30 m (Ref. 1753), and also from depths of 0 to 200 m (Ref. 3435). Members of the class Ascidiacea are hermaphroditic; both cross- and self-fertilization is typical. Life cycle: Eggs develop into lecithotrophic larva before metamorphosing into benthic adults (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Not Evaluated 

Threat to humans

Human uses


More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Biblio
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)